List of Financial Ratios Advantages & Disadvantage Types of Ratios


The articles and research support materials available on this site are educational and are not intended to be investment or tax advice. All such information is provided solely for convenience purposes only and all users thereof should be guided accordingly. Below is the latest we’ve written in each category of ratio and, if you want more, you can click the links above to explore the ratio types and all of the examples we have. Balance sheets and income statements are invaluable tools to gauge… I’ve worked for newspapers, magazines and various online platforms as both a writer and copy editor. I cover various small business topics, including technology, financing and marketing on and Business News Daily. Keeping good records is essential to running a small business, but the bookkeeping process can be time-consuming.

What are the 5 key elements of a financial analysis?

  • Revenues. Revenues are probably your business's main source of cash.
  • Profits. If you can't produce quality profits consistently, your business may not survive in the long run.
  • Operational Efficiency.
  • Capital Efficiency and Solvency.
  • Liquidity.

Or, you might want to compare the P/E of one or more stocks to an industry average. If a company has zero or negative earnings (i.e., a loss), then earnings per share will also be zero or negative. Most ratios are best used in combination with others, rather than singly, for a comprehensive picture of company financial health. There are six basic ratios that are often used to pick stocks for investment portfolios. The day sales in inventory ratio calculates how long a business holds inventories before they are converted to finished products or sold to customers.

List of Liquidity Ratios: Formula & Analysis

By measuring your business’s ability to collect the money you owe, your Receivables Turnover Ratio helps investors and analysts understand how quickly your short-term debt is collected and paid. The Asset Turnover Ratio demonstrates how efficient your company is at using assets to generate revenue. It examines the value of your company’s sales or revenue in relation to the value of its assets. By demonstrating what percentage of sales has turned into profits, your Profit Margin showcases the degree to which a business activity makes money.

debt to asset

Companies use liquidity ratios to measure working capital performance – the money available to meet your current, short-term obligations . In other words, it measures the amount an investor would pay for each dollar earned. Because share prices vary by industry and market conditions, there isn’t a universal rule for what constitutes a “good” P/E. However, you can compare the company’s P/E to similar stock prices for comparison. First, the information used for a ratio is as of a specific point in time or reporting period, which may not be indicative of long-term trends.

Abbreviations and terminology

Derives by dividing the company’s profit by the total number of shares outstanding. Important Profitability RatiosProfitability ratios help in evaluating the ability of a company to generate income against the expenses. These ratios represent the financial viability of the company in various terms. SolvencySolvency of a company means its ability to meet the long term financial commitments, continue its operation in the foreseeable future and achieve long term growth. The current ratio expresses the relationship between a current asset to current liabilities. Valuation ratios are used to determine the value of a stock when compared to a certain measure like profits or enterprise value.

  • In this case, the total liability of the company is $420M ($300M + $120M), but the equity is only $300M so, in the calculation of ROE, only equity will be used.
  • It is used to discern how well a business can generate a profit from both its operations and financial activities.
  • Also known as leverage ratios, solvency ratios directly measure a company’s total debt against its assets, equity, and earnings.
  • One can use it to evaluate the ability of a company’s core operations to generate a profit.
  • Return-on-equity, or ROE, is a metric used to analyze investment returns.

But because this can be a daunting and somewhat overwhelming task, given the amount of financial information available about the average business, some simple business valuation ratios can help to simplify things. A DSCR of less than 1.0 implies that the operating cash flows are insufficient for debt servicing, indicating negative cash flows. This financial ratio indicates whether or not working capital has been utilized effectively in sales. Thereceivable turnover ratioshows how often the receivable turns into cash. Learn accounting fundamentals and how to read financial statements with CFI’s free online accounting classes. Your business will struggle to repay the supplier and you’ll be in real trouble.

List of Financial Ratios

While both solvency and liquidity ratios are essential in measuring a company’s ability to pay off debt, solvency ratios are more concerned with long-term sustainability. Also known as leverage ratios, solvency ratios directly measure a company’s total debt against its assets, equity, and earnings. Determining individual financial ratios per period and tracking the change in their values over time is done to spot trends that may be developing in a company. For example, an increasing debt-to-asset ratio may indicate that a company is overburdened with debt and may eventually be facing default risk. Market ratios measure investor response to owning a company’s stock and also the cost of issuing stock. These are concerned with the return on investment for shareholders, and with the relationship between return and the value of an investment in company’s shares. The equity of an organization is calculated by subtracting its total assets from total liabilities.

term debt

These ratios are commonly used by investors, and we’ll take a closer look at each of them, in turn, below. Financial leverageis the percentage change in net profit relative to operating profit, and it measures how sensitive the net income is to the change in operating income. Financial leverage primarily originates from the company’s financing decisions .

Working capital ratio

Higher interest ratiosimply the greater ability of the firm to pay off its interests. This financial ratio signifies the ability of the firm to pay interest on the assumed debt. Operating LeverageOperating Leverage is an accounting metric that helps the analyst in analyzing how a company’s operations are related to the company’s revenues. The ratio gives details about how much of a revenue increase will the company have with a specific percentage of sales increase – which puts the predictability of sales into the forefront.


Total equity includes all the shareholders’ equity and the general reserves of a company. Financial backers can utilize current profits and dividends to assist with deciding the likely future stock price and the profits they might earn. Key market value ratios include dividend yield, earning per share , the price-to-earnings ratio, and the dividend payout ratio.